These ostraka from 482 BC were recovered from a well near the Acropolis. The ostraka in the upper row read "THEMISTHOKLES PHREARIOS" (Themistocles from Phreari), while the others read "THEMISTHOKLES NEOKLEOS" (Themistocles son of Neocles). The Athenians had a particular voting technique to remove a citizen from the community. If ostracized, the person was exiled for ten years, and after that time could return and have their property restored. Themistocles was a great Athenian general, but the Spartans worked to have him exiled. After his ostracism, he moved to Persia, Athen's enemy, where King Artaxerxes I made him governor of Magnesia. Ancient Agora Museum in Athens. Public Domain courtesy of Xocolatl 09:29, 15 April 2008 (UTC) - Own work and Wikipedia.

A Reminder About Democracy

Ancient Greeks started democracy, but they would not recognize it in our modern world – they’d see an especially insidious form of oligarchy, according to Heritage Daily.

George Arents Collection, The New York Public Library. "Carthage. The Basilica of St. Cyprian." The New York Public Library Digital Collections.

Summer Reading

Do you need some summer reading? How about Flaubert? In her latest submission to, Sweating Truth in Ancient Carthage, Adrienne … More

The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library. "Odoacer." The New York Public Library Digital Collections.

Fall of Rome

Updated May 30, 2016 – Articles summarizing the rise of kingdoms in Europe from the ashes of Rome.

More on Roman Warfare Vocabulary

See that “vocabulary” in the title? I tried “glossary”, glossaries”, and “word list” and “vocabulary,” but can’t remember which one … More