Names of Augustus
63-44 B.C.: Gaius Octavius
44-27 B.C.: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian)
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.: Augustus
Mother: Atia Balba Caesonia
Father: Gaius Octavius
Adoptive Father: Julius Caesar
Augustus or Octavius (as he was called until his great-uncle, Julius Caesar, adopted him) was born 23 September, 63 B.C., in Rome. In 48 B.C., he was elected to the pontifical college. In 45 he followed Caesar to Spain. In 43 or 42 Caesar named Octavius Master of Horse. In March 44 B.C., when Julius Caesar died and his will read, Octavius discovered he had been adopted.
Octavian marched on Rome with eight legions and was made consul in 43. The Second Triumvirate soon formed. This is the name for a group of three men sharing the power. Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed the first triumvirate. Augustus, Mark Antony, and Lepidus (soon to be rendered impotent) formed the second.
You may date Augustus’ reign to Actium (31 B.C.) when he defeated his main opponent, Mark Antony, or the first constitutional settlement January, 27 B.C. In the second Constitutional Settlement, June-July, 23 B.C., he acquired the tribunician power, giving him the power of the veto over the Senate, magistrates, and assemblies. In 2 B.C. the Senate gave him the title Pater Patriae “father of the country.” He ruled Rome until his death in 14 A.D., at Nola, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Tiberius.
Based on my About.com article: Augustus Bio