Theseus Rid the World of Villains From Troezen to Athens

Theseus Rid the World of Villains From Troezen to AthensTheseus, in imitation of Hercules, whom he admired, set out to Athens to meet his father, Aegeus. The young man left his birthplace, Troezen, bearing his newly-found sword and sandals, the prenatal gifts of his absent father. Although the sea course was safer, Theseus opted for the highway-robber and villain-infested land-route so he could gain a reputation like his hero’s. Here are the men and one animal the hero notoriously cut down on his first heroic journey. Passages are from a public domain version of Plutarch’s life of Theseus.

Periphetes the Club-Bearer

When Periphetes the Club-Bearer blocked Theseus’ progress, Theseus slew him and took his weapon, and then carried it about as his symbol.


With this mind and these thoughts, he set forward with a design to do injury to nobody, but to repel and revenge himself of all those that should offer any. And first of all, in a set combat, he slew Periphetes, in the neighborhood of Epidaurus, who used a club for his arms, and from thence had the name of Corynetes, or the club-bearer; who seized upon him, and forbade him to go forward in his journey. Being pleased with the club, he took it, and made it his weapon, continuing to use it as Hercules did the lion’s skin, on whose shoulders that served to prove how huge a beast he had killed; and to the same end Theseus carried about him this club; overcome indeed by him, but now, in his hands, invincible.

Sinnis the Pine-Bender

The next villain Theseus encountered on his trip to Troezen was Sinnis (Sinis), known as the Pine-Bender. He challenged passers-by and when they failed, he killed them by binding them to pine trees bent down. Theseus defeated Sinis and killed him either by slaying him with a sword or stringing him upon his own bent pine. Theseus then impregnated Sinnis’ daughter, Perigune. Plutarch makes it appear consensual. She bore a child named Melanippus. It is possible Sinnis was related to Theseus and he later had to expiate this blood guilt.


Passing on further towards the Isthmus of Peloponnesus, he slew Sinnis, often surnamed the Bender of Pines, after the same manner in which he himself had destroyed many others before. And this he did without having either practiced or ever learnt the art of bending these trees, to show that natural strength is above all art. This Sinnis had a daughter of remarkable beauty and stature, called Perigune, who, when her father was killed, fled, and was sought after everywhere by Theseus; and coming into a place overgrown with brushwood shrubs, and asparagus- thorn, there, in a childlike, innocent manner, prayed and begged them, as if they understood her, to give her shelter, with vows that if she escaped she would never cut them down nor burn them. But Theseus calling upon her, and giving her his promise that he would use her with respect, and offer her no injury, she came forth, and in due time bore him a son, named Melanippus; but afterwards was married to Deioneus, the son of Eurytus, the Oechalian, Theseus himself giving her to him. Ioxus, the son of this Melanippus who was born to Theseus, accompanied Ornytus in the colony that he carried with him into Caria, whence it is a family usage amongst the people called Ioxids, both male and female, never to burn either shrubs or asparagus-thorn, but to respect and honor them.

The Crommyonian Sow


Photo: Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons.

Theseus sought out the wild beast as a noble animal and opponent.


The Crommyonian sow, which they called Phaea, was a savage and formidable wild beast, by no means an enemy to be despised. Theseus killed her, going out of his way on purpose to meet and engage her, so that he might not seem to perform all his great exploits out of mere necessity ; being also of opinion that it was the part of a brave man to chastise villainous and wicked men when attacked by them, but to seek out and overcome the more noble wild beasts. Others relate that Phaea was a woman, a robber full of cruelty and lust, that lived in Crommyon, and had the name of Sow given her from the foulness of her life and manners, and afterwards was killed by Theseus.

Sciron

Another of his matched killings, Theseus killed Sciron by throwing him from the rocks into the sea. Sciron’s crime was forcing passers-by to wash his feet and while so engaged kicking them down the rocks into the sea.


He slew also Sciron, upon the borders of Megara, casting him down from the rocks, being, as most report, a notorious robber of all passengers, and, as others add, accustomed, out of insolence and wantonness, to stretch forth his feet to strangers, commanding them to wash them, and then while they did it, with a kick to send them down the rock into the sea. The writers of Megara, however, in contradiction to the received report, and, as Simonides expresses it, “fighting with all antiquity,” contend that Sciron was neither a robber nor doer of violence, but a punisher of all such, and the relative and friend of good and just men; for Aeacus, they say, was ever esteemed a man of the greatest sanctity of all the Greeks; and Cychreus, the Salaminian, was honored at Athens with divine worship; and the virtues of Peleus and Telamon were not unknown to any one. Now Sciron was son-in-law to Cychreus, father-in-law to Aeacus, and grandfather to Peleus and Telamon, who were both of them sons of Endeis, the daughter of Sciron and Chariclo; it was not probable, therefore, that the best of men should make these alliances with one who was worst, giving and receiving mutually what was of greatest value and most dear to them. Theseus, by their account, did not slay Sciron in his first journey to Athens, but afterwards, when he took Eleusis, a city of the Megarians, having circumvented Diocles, the governor. Such are the contradictions in this story.

Cercyon


In Eleusis he killed Cercyon, the Arcadian, in a wrestling match.

Procrustes


Photo: Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons.

Procrustes is the most famous of the villains Theseus killed on his way to Athens. Procrustes forced people to fit his iron bed by cutting off the extra bits or stretching them. Theseus used his own torture on Procrustes.


And going on a little farther, in Erineus, he slew Damastes, otherwise called Procrustes, forcing his body to the size of his own bed, as he himself was used to do with all strangers; this he did in imitation of Hercules, who always returned upon his assailants the same sort of violence that they offered to him; sacrificed Busiris, killed Antaeus in wrestling, and Cycnus in single combat, and Termerus by breaking his skull in pieces (whence, they say, comes the proverb of “a Termerian mischief”), for it seems Termerus killed passengers that he met, by running with his head against them. And so also Theseus proceeded in the punishment of evil men, who underwent the same violence from him which they had inflicted upon others, justly suffering after the manner of their own injustice.

As he went forward on his journey, and was come as far as the river Cephisus, some of the race of the Phytalidae met him and saluted him, and, upon his desire to use the purifications, then in custom, they performed them with all the usual ceremonies, and, having offered propitiatory sacrifices to the gods, invited him and entertained him at their house, a kindness which, in all his journey hitherto, he had not met.

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